BENJAMIN FRANKLIN was an American all-rounder and according to many the personification of what the American Dream is called, because he has worked his way up from humble circumstances to one of the most prominent thinkers and statesmen of his country. Born in Boston as the youngest of 17 children, he left school at the age of ten. At twelve he began an apprenticeship as a printer with his brother JAMES . He later went to Philadelphia and finally to England for a year. He made a career as a printer. In 1731 FRANKLIN founded Philadelphia’s first public library with others and was involved in the University of Pennsylvania. In addition to the newspapers and magazines, FRANKLIN’s experiments with electricity soon caused a stir.
“On the side” he began to be politically active. In 1757 the American settlers sent him to England as a negotiator to speak for better conditions in the colonies. During his stay he was awarded an honorary doctorate from Oxford University.
In 1764 he traveled to England again, and from there to France in 1767. In America he was a member of the Continental Congress,which met in Philadelphia and was America’s first political body. In 1776 the Continental Congress sent FRANKLIN as commissioner to France, which became an important ally of the settlers against England during the War of Independence. In 1778, FRANKLIN was proclaimed the first United States Envoy to France. FRANKLIN quickly rose to be the darling of society in France. The French valued his charm and excellent education. In fact, he was so popular that many French people hung his portrait in their homes.
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN was the main character in the peace negotiations with England, he knew France well and was well acquainted with the customs of old Europe. After signing the Treaty of Paris, he stayed in France for some time, where he, who was a member of the Freemasons, also interacted with those leading intellectuals who later initiated the French Revolution. He later returned to America, where he continued to work as a successful politician. His autobiography remains a bestseller in the United States to this day.
According to best-medical-schools, JOHN ADAMS was a Massachusetts farmer’s son who studied law at Harvard and, along with his cousin SAMUEL ADAMS, became a passionate advocate of American independence. JOHN ADAMS was a member of the Continental Congress and a member of the group of men around THOMAS JEFFERSON who wrote the American Declaration of Independence. He gained his first diplomatic experience when the Congress sent him to Holland to start peace negotiations with Great Britain from there.
After signing the Treaty of Paris, ADAMS returned to America. A great political career awaited him there. He was initially Vice President and then, to succeed GEORGE WASHINGTON, second President of the United States. An office in which his son JOHN QUINCY ADAMS was to succeed him as sixth president in 1825. JOHN ADAMS was married to ABIGAIL ADAMS, who gave him great political support. The couple has become famous for their correspondence, especially because ABIGAIL did not shy away from expressing their opinions on politics and also warned her husband to take women seriously in their political participation.
JOHN JAY was a native of New York and, like ADAMS, was an attorney. He came from a respected and wealthy family. Initially an opponent of American independence, JOHN JAY soon became one of the most dedicated advocates of a sovereign America. He was not only a member of the Continental Congress: from December 1778 to September 1779 he headed it as President. For the good of the settlers, he negotiated in Spain in 1779 and obtained a loan for the American colonies to finance the War of Independence.
JOHN JAY also expected high political offices after the signing of the Treaty of Paris. When he returned to America after the successful mission, he was informed that in his absence he had been re-elected Secretary For Foreign Affairs, the predecessor of today’s Secretary of State. From the first President of America, GEORGE WASHINGTON, he was appointed first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in 1789, that is, the first chief judge.
JOHN JAY was also a theorist and writer of legal texts an important man. Together with the important politicians and founding fathers ALEXANDER HAMILTON and GEORGE MASON, he wrote the Federalist Papers, which regulated the cooperation of the Confederate states.
In 1792, WASHINGTON sent JAY to England: there had been several breaches of the treaty and the agreements signed in the Treaty of Paris were not kept. JAY, as a signatory of the original work, very familiar with the matter, succeeded in renegotiations. His diplomatic skills helped to avert another war with England. The documents from this encounter went down in history as the Jay Treaty.