Nigeria Economy

Nigeria Geography and Economy

Geographic characteristics

The country can be subdivided into four differentiable geographic regions. Along the coast there is a belt of mangroves and swamps that extends up to about 16 km inland in most places, and in which lagoons and inlets abound; In the Niger Delta region, the coastal belt extends some 100 km inland.

Beyond the coastal lowlands rise the valleys of the Niger and Benue rivers, and the terrain gives way to a wide, mountainous, vegetated belt, gradually rising to the rocky terrain of the Jos and Bauchi plateaus..

Beyond these plateaus there is a savanna region, which reaches the Sahelian semi-desert area in the extreme north.

Nigerian main agricultural region is a large savanna plain, in which granite outcrops appear from time to time.

To the east is the Adamaua massif, which borders Cameroon and which is the highest point in Nigeria, the Dimlang (Vogel Peak) with 2,042 m of altitude.


The Niger and its tributaries (especially the Benue, Kaduna, and Sokoto rivers) drain most of Nigeria.

In the northeast, the rivers flow to Lake Chad. River navigation is limited by rapids and seasonal fluctuations in depth.


It has two different climatic zones. Along the coast, the maritime equatorial air mass allows high humidity and heavy rainfall.

To the north, the tropical continental air mass carries dry and dust-laden winds (harmattan wind) from the Sahara ; temperature varies considerably with the season, as does rainfall, which is much lower than in the south.

The most intense rains take place between April and October; rainfall ranges from 2,500mm at Port Harcourt in the Niger Delta to 870mm at Kano in the north.


The vegetation areas are parallel to the climatic zones. The south, a well-watered area, is partially covered by debris of a dense tropical forest that contains noble woods such as mahogany and obeche; palm trees for oil production are very abundant.

In the plateau and savanna regions, rainforests give way to grassland and hardy trees like baobab and tamarind ; semi-desert vegetation prevails in the extreme northeastern region of the Sahel.


Crocodiles and snakes can be found in swampy and jungle regions. The large African mammals that were characteristic of Nigeria have disappeared due to numerous human settlements. There are some antelopes, camels and hyenas left in the north.

Mineral resources

Iron ore and salt deposits abound in the savanna region; Tin and columbite can be found in the plateau area, while in the Niger Delta and beyond the coast of the Bays of Benin and Biafra, located in the Gulf of Guinea, there are large deposits of oil and natural gas.

As a country located in Africa according to AGOODDIR, Nigeria also has large deposits of coal, lead, and zinc, and smaller deposits of gold and uranium.


With more than 250 ethnic groups, Nigeria is a complex linguistic, social and cultural mosaic. More than half of the population is made up of the Hausa and Fulani peoples of the north, the Yoruba of the southwest, and the Ibo of the southeast.

Other ethnic groups include the Edo, Ijaw and Ibibio from the south, the Nupe and Tiv from the central part of the country, and the Kanuri from the northeast.


The population is 126,635,626 residents with an average population density of 152 residents / km². About 48% of the population lives in urban areas.


Nigeria was traditionally an agricultural country, meeting most of its food needs and exporting a variety of products, especially palm oil, cocoa, rubber, and groundnut (groundnut). However, in the early 1970s oil had taken the place of industrial crops as a primary resource for foreign exchange and had transformed the Nigerian economy.


The industry focuses on crude oil and its refining, industrial mining of: coal, tin, columbite; palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, plywood, hides, fabrics and textiles, cement, building materials, food industries, footwear, chemicals, fertilizers, printing, ceramics, steel


Cassava, legumes and tomatoes are grown throughout Nigeria, large quantities of bananas and sugar cane are also produced. At the beginning of the 19th century, palm oil became an export product to Europe ; Since the early 1950s, the importance of cocoa and peanuts has grown, surpassing palm oil as the main exportable agricultural products. In the first part of the 20th century, cotton began to be cultivated for national use.

Most of the crops are grown on small family farms; Until the 1950s, the formation of large plantations was not favored, but since then it has increased its importance for the production of rubber, palm oil and cocoa.

The main crops in are cassava, sorghum, millet, corn and sugar cane.

Cattle raising

It develops cattle, poultry, pigs, goats and sheep.

Forestry and fishing

Wood production is highly developed, 92% is used as domestic fuel.

About 35% of Nigeria’s annual fish catch comes from the country’s rivers and lakes, with the remainder from the Gulf of Guinea.


Nigeria is one of the world’s largest oil producers.

The oil Nigeria has a low sulfur content, which makes it especially attractive to American and European buyers looking to reduce air pollution.

A large part of natural gas is also exploited. Tin and columbite are mined in the Jos Plateau area, and coal is produced in the Onitsha region. Small amounts of limestone, salt, lignite, and iron ore are also obtained.


Nigeria relies heavily on its national road network.

The country has 3,528 km of rail in service. The main seaports are Lagos, Port Harcourt, Warri, Calabar, Bonny and Burutu. International airports are in Lagos and Kano, but there are smaller runways in other large cities. The government-owned airline, Nigeria Airways, offers international services.

Nigeria Economy