Guinea History

Guinea History

Starting in the 13th century, and for three centuries, Guinea was part of the Malian empire. In the 16th century the country was exploited by Portuguese navigators, who activated the slave trade (in which the English, French and Dutch also participated). During the seventeenth century the country was subjected to tribes from the north, who seized Guinean territory and founded an Islamic feudal empire, which lasted until the nineteenth century. The French, who had already founded establishments in 1658, settled in Guinea until the middle of the last century, when Guinea became part of the French area of influence. In 1895 it was incorporated into French West Africa (AOF). From In 1945, an important nationalist movement developed in the country, led by Sékou Touré, who obtained absolute victory in the elections held in 1957, as leader of the Guinean Democratic Party (PDG).

In 1958 the independence of the Republic was declared with Sékou Touré as president. One-partyism was promoted following the model of Soviet socialism. As a result of the independence of Guinea, France maintained a hostile policy towards the colony: teachers, technicians and specialized labor withdrew; there were trade restrictions and financial aid was denied (in 1978 France resumed technical assistance to Guinea for the exploitation of mines). The new situation forced the country to request economic and technical assistance from the socialist and neutralist states (USSR, China,). Sékou Touré carried out a series of social reforms, such as the nationalization of banking and insurance and the constitution of agricultural cooperatives. He maintained an anti-imperialist foreign policy and friendship with Ghana and Mali (countries with which he formed the Union of African States).

In 1962, and until 1965, Guinea established international relations with the United States. and France. In 1978 a certain pluralism was fostered in the PDG bodies with the introduction of new structures, at both the local and sectional levels; at the XI Congress of the PDG, held in November 1978, a series of changes in political orientation were decided. Guinea was renamed, since then, the People’s and Revolutionary Republic of Guinea. A policy of openness towards Western countries was chosen, without abandoning the path of socialism. In addition, he joined various development organizations, such as the Mano River Union or the West African Economic Community.

On the contrary, domestic politics did not undergo many changes (the opposition was still excluded from political life), despite the new Constitution of 1985. In May 1982, Touré, the sole candidate, was re-elected and Lansana Beavogui appointed Prime Minister. During this new period, economic agreements were signed with Nigeria and Beavogui mediated the conflict between Morocco and the Polisario Front. After Touré’s death in 1984, Beavogui was appointed interim president. The 8 of April of 1984, eight days after the death of the dictator A. Sekou Toure, Colonel Lansana Conte led a military coup that toppled interim president Lansana Beavogui.

Lansana abolished the Constitution and announced the release of political prisoners. He restored freedom of association and the press and, furthermore, initiated a pro-Western policy. Diarra Traoré was appointed Prime Minister. Its main objective was to establish relations with Western countries, especially France, and attract foreign investment. The official name of the country was changed to the Republic of Guinea. In December 1984 Traoré was relegated from his post.

In 1988, Lansana Conté announced the opening towards a constitutional regime, at an economically delicate moment, due to the economic measures imposed under pressure from the IMF. However, the government repression in October 1989 questioned the country’s democratization process. In 1993 the first multi-party elections were held that confirmed Conté as president.

Since the death of Lansana Conte in December 2008 and the takeover of power by Dadis Camara’s military junta, Alpha Condé has focused its political action on the return to civilian government and the holding of fair, transparent and inclusive elections. It has done so within the “Active Forces of the opposition, the unions and other actors of civil society.

In February 2010 he announced to Conakry his party’s candidacy for the presidential elections of June 2010. He reached the first round of the presidential elections held on June 27, 2010 with 18%, he won the elections in the second round with 52.52% of the votes and diverted the new head of state of the Republic of Guinea.

Political-administrative organization

As a country located in Africa according to A2ZDIRECTORY, Guinea is divided into 8 administrative regions and subdivided into 33 prefectures. Administrative regions include:

  • Boké
  • Faranah
  • Kankan
  • Kindia
  • Labe
  • Mamou
  • Nzérékoré
  • Conakry

Major Cities

The most important cities are: Conakry, the capital, one of the most important ports in Guinea; Kankan, on the banks of the River Milo, is the second largest city, standing out for its commercial tradition, as a center for gold and salt caravans since the 18th century.

  • Conakry (2,000,000)
  • Labe (400000)
  • Kankan (439,017)
  • Kindia (279,884)
  • Nzérékoré (247,855)
  • Kissidougou (135.90)
  • Guéckédou (116,541)
  • Mamou (105,754)

Guinea History