Guinea Geography

Guinea Geography

According to NECESSARYHOME, Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea, is a state in West Africa. It limits with Senegal to the N, with Mali to the NE, Guinea-Bissau to the NW, Ivory Coast to the SE, Liberia and Sierra Leone to the S and with the Atlantic Ocean to the W. The capital is Conakry.

In Guinea, four geographically well-defined areas are distinguished: Lower Guinea, which occupies the western plains of the Atlantic coast, where there are lagoons and mangrove swamps; Upper Guinea is situated on the Niger plains and, after extending from N to E, ends in the Sahara desert ; the third region is made up of the Futa-Djalon mountain ranges (Middle Guinea), which are born in the coastal plain and delimit lower and upper Guinea. Its elevations reach their highest point on Mount Lura (1,515 m), north of the city of Mali. To the SW, the jungle region, whose typical landscape is the jungle.


The climate is tropical and is characterized by the alternation of a dry and a wet season. The rainiest months correspond to July and August, while April is the hottest. The average annual temperature is about 27ºC and the average annual rainfall is higher in lower Guinea (Conakry: 4,292 mm per year), while in the much drier Upper Guinea, there are greater climatic contrasts.

The climate determines the landscape of the different areas of the country. The O, more humid, is covered with tropical forest (which extends over almost the entire Guinean territory) and in the eastern zone the savannah extends, sometimes interrupted by crops destined for food (millet, sesame, rice).


The typical Guinean vegetation type is the mahogany, teak and ebony trees, while the mangrove tree extends along the coastal area.


The most important rivers in the country, and in West Africa, are born in the Futa-Djalon mountain ranges (the Niger, the Gambia and the Senegal).


The official language is French, although more than eight indigenous languages are spoken in Guinea (El Fula, Kissi, Kpelle, Maninkakan, Susu, Toma)

Social development


The unevenly distributed population is concentrated mainly in the coastal plain and Futa-Djalon, while in eastern Guinea it is much more dispersed. Most of them live in rural areas, and some regions, such as Futa Djalon, have very heavy emigration. Among the various ethnic groups that populate the country, the Malinke, settled in the jungle region, the Fulani, the Kissi, Loma and Kpelle peoples stand out.



Guinean art is not a uniform art due to the existence of the different ethnic groups that coexist in the territory. Like many peoples of Africa, and because of their way of life, there are no heavy or large works. The Fulani, who have developed an aesthetic of personal appearance, are a characteristic example as their art is limited to details of clothing, amulets, headdresses, bracelets, ceremonial utensils and vessels.


Islam predominates, although animistic beliefs are also practiced and there is a small percentage of Catholic Christians.


Mining exploitation

Mining, limited for a long time to Gouré gold and diamonds, underwent a great development from 1945. The extraction of bauxite, on the islands and in some inland regions, and of iron ore, exploited on the Kaloum peninsula, underwent a significant expansion after the Second World War (in 1983, Guinea was the world’s second largest producer of bauxite).


The agriculture has entered in recent years in a process of decay. The main cash crops (coffee, bananas, vegetables and pineapple) have practically disappeared. One of the main food products is rice, a crop developed in the Niger Valley. In addition, the country has abundant forest resources, although they have been improperly exploited.


The underdeveloped industry focuses on the transformation of agricultural products and raw materials. Guinea, a member of the Economic Community of West African States (Ecowas), has significant hydroelectric potential and its main exports are based on mining products (bauxite, diamonds and gold), while it has to import semi-finished goods, oil and its derivatives, food products and consumer goods.

Guinea Geography