The history of Canada is very diverse. Starting with the first settlements around 15,000 years ago. These settlements were likely formed over a land bridge between Alaska and Siberia. Then around 1000 Vikings briefly settled in Newfoundland. In 1497 JOHN CABOT from Venice landed in Newfoundland for England. In 1535 the upper St. Lawrence River and the Gaspesie Peninsula were conquered by JACQUES CARTIER for France.
The first European visitors were Norwegian sailors who reached Newfoundland via Britain, Ireland, Iceland and Greenland and established settlements for trade with the Eskimos at the end of the 10th century. However, the bases were soon abandoned.
In 1497, the Italian navigator CABOTO (English: JOHN CABOT) came by order of the English king – looking for a shorter sea route to Asia – via the Northwest Passage to Newfoundland and Nova Scotia.
Due to the rich fishing grounds near Newfoundland, European fishermen from Great Britain, France, Spain and Portugal became aware of Canada in the 16th century and founded numerous small settlements on the coast.
On his expedition along the Saint Lawrence River in 1535, JACQUES CARTIER took possession of this area – on behalf of the French crown – as a colony of New France. The lack of the hoped-for mineral resources made France less interested in the region until some settlers around SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN founded the city of Quebec in 1608. From this fort the residents organized the fur trade with the Indians. In 1674 the French crown took over the administration of the colony and further forts were built along the St. Lawrence River, around the Great Lakes and into the Mississippi region into Louisiana.
Wars between the British, French and Indians
Tensions between between French settlers and English colonies have increased since then. Warring Indian tribes – Iroquois on the English and Hurons on the French side – were involved in the struggle for territorial claims. The conflict between the colonial powers over Canada reached its climax in the Seven Years’ War. The Peace of Paris in 1763 sealed the defeat of France, which lost its Canadian territories to England. The province of Québec was thus under the English crown, which granted the resident French full religious freedom. In the conflict between the English and the 13 founding colonies of the later United States, the Canadian colony remained neutral. After the British lost the war against the young United States of America in 1783, the loyalists who had remained loyal to the king settled in Canada. As a result, Canada was increasingly shaped by a British (Upper Canada) and a French part (Lower Canada).
In 1784, according to a2zdirectory, the borders between British Canada and the United States were written into Versailles, and shortly thereafter one Canadian legislature introduced, which ultimately marked the first step towards Canadian autonomy.
In 1791 the British divided Canada into the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada. The disputes over the lucrative fur trade intensified. British soldiers supplied Native American tribes with weapons to make it difficult for US settlers to advance north. The conflict culminated in 1812 when the US attempted to conquer the Canadian possessions of Britain, which was prevented by British troops.
The hour of birth of Canada
In 1840 the British Upper Canada and the French Lower Canada united to form the Province of Canada with a parliamentary government in the capital Ottawa. In 1846 the last British taxes were abolished and a period of economic boom combined with a strong urge to expand west began.
On July 1, 1867, Ontario (Upper Canada), Quebec (Lower Canada), Nova Scotia and New Brunswick (New Brunswick) merged to form a state called Dominion of Canada, the Constitution Act is Canada’s first constitution.
Subsequently they became the Hudson’s Bay Company bought the provinces of Manitoba, Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1871 British Columbia and in 1873 Prince Edward Island joined the Dominion.
Over the years Canada has increasingly sought statehood, which was finally largely achieved with the 1931 Statute of Westminster. Canada became an independent state, but remained part of the British Commonwealth of Nations. Canada only achieved complete independence from Great Britain in 1982 through a new constitution. However, this was not signed by the Province of Quebec.