The term media can be broadly defined as any form of communication system that contributes to the information, entertainment or education of the members of a society. Language, writing, images and music as well as non-verbal modes of communication can be used. More specifically, the term media includes the press (newspapers, magazines), other print products such as Includes books, television, radio, film and electronic media.
In modern, commercialized societies, these mass media increasingly determine a large part of people’s perception, can influence and sometimes manipulate them. In such a media society, opinions are often only formed through the media, which means that they are always the focus of a critical discussion on media ethics.
Media in Australia
Due to the size of the continent, Australians have long been concerned with the forms and ways of transmitting messages. Without newspapers, telephones, televisions, radios and computers in Australia, you can quickly find yourself cut off from the outside world in remote areas. Even in schools, communication is only possible via radio in certain areas. The Alice Springs School of the Air (ASSOA) has therefore made it its mission since 1950 to teach students living in the outback via radio and, since the 1990’s, via satellite and internet communication.
While there is freedom of the press and expression in Australia ,independent reporting is difficult, however, as the Australian media is owned by few companies.
According to itypejob, the national newspapers and the state capitals newspapers are e.g. B. Controlled by only two companies: News Corporation (News Ltd.) and John Fairfax Holdings Limited. The rural and regional media are in the hands of Rural Press Limited. Monopoly and antitrust aspects in the media sector must therefore always be monitored. This is primarily the responsibility of the Australian Press Council (controlling body for the print industry). The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (see British Broadcasting Corporation – BBC) also endeavors to always offer the same broadcasting options and platforms in television and radio programs as well as on the Internet from a wide variety of viewpoints.
There are currently around 70 major city, national and regional newspapers in Australia . But only four media companies own 80 percent of these newspapers. Several newspapers, which are combined in the News Corporation, belong to the media mogul RUPERT MURDOCH, who is well known beyond the borders of Australia. MURDOCH can look back on an American-looking career – from dishwasher to millionaire: Murdoch built the now global media empire News Corporation from a small tabloid newspaper in Adelaide, which also expanded into the American and British media markets.
The main Australian daily newspapers are the Sydney Morning Herald (John Fairfax Holdings), the Melbourne Herald Sun (News Ltd.) and the national newspaper The Australian (News Ltd.).
Due to the concentrated ownership of regional and national newspapers and because of the criticism that the government under Prime Minister JOHN HOWARD leveled at the journalists who questioned Australia’s involvement in the Iraq war, Australia ranks only 41st among the countries whose Freedom of the press was assessed by Reporters Without Borders in 2004. In addition, RUPERT MURDOCH campaigned heavily for Australian engagement in Iraq in his newspapers.
The number of Australian magazines has increased from an estimated 417 titles (1990) to 732 titles (2000), an increase of 73 percent. The target group of readers aged 14 and over buys an average of 21 magazines per year or spends AUS $ 88 per year for them.
The Australian television landscape is characterized by two public broadcasters (called Free-To-Air ; ABC and Special Broadcasting Corporation – SBS), around 40 commercial channels and seven pay-TV channels (e.g. Foxtel and Austar). Also, the digital television is introduced successively.
ABC broadcasts a national program and can be roughly compared with the offer of ARD, ZDF or ORF. The station also broadcasts many UK topics . SBS,Founded as a broadcaster for around 30 percent of non-English native speakers, it offers the majority of its programs in one of the more than 60 foreign languages with English subtitles. With the emergence of pay-TV channels that could address very specific target groups (in 2003 around 23% of all Australian households had pay-TV), SBS had to turn from its previously more specific focus to a wider audience in order to gain its market share secure.
The approximately 40 commercial broadcasters are owned by three major broadcast networks: Seven Network, Nine Network and Network Ten. This includes numerous, smaller regional networks, some of which should be named as examples: Tasmanian Digital Television, Seven Darwin, Southern Cross Ten, Imparja.
Television has existed in Australia since 1956. Approx. 99 percent of Australian households have at least one television set.
Today every household in Australia has at least one radio , an average of 5.1 pieces. A total of around 37 million radios are likely to be scattered across the continent. There is a large selection of radio stations: around 442 stations make up the structure of Australian radio, which started broadcasting the first programs as early as 1923. The broadcasters are subject to the supervision of the Australian Broadcasting Authority, which acts as a controlling authority (also for television) and issues licenses. The only public radio station is the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, which operates six radio station networks. There are also around 260 commercial radio stations and 230 community radio stations.
The reception does not look optimal everywhere, despite the abundance of channels on offer: While you receive at least one or two VHF stations along the east coast, you don’t always have a chance to elicit intelligible sounds from the radio in the outback, even on medium wave reception.
More media data
Australia, Sweden, Hong Kong and the Netherlands have very advanced internet usage. Here, 63 percent of people own or borrow a computer, 81 percent of which have fast connection speeds. 72 percent of Australians over the age of 16 use the internet either at home or in other places (internet cafe, office, etc.). In Germany this proportion is only 63 percent (all figures from 2002).
Another popular media pastime is the cinema .In 2001, more than 92 million cinema tickets were sold, an increase of 3 percent compared to the previous year. On average, Australians (16 years and older) go to the cinema at least once a month. 1.7 million even more than once a month.