Economic planning (started with the 1st five-year plan in 1951 and now at the end of the 5th plan) has radically transformed the Albanian economy, traditionally agricultural, into a modern agricultural-industrial economy. After leaving COMECON in 1961, the technical and financial aid of the Soviet Union was replaced by that of the People’s Republic of China, to which the Albania has become closely linked. The active population is still predominantly employed in agriculture (62% in 1970), to a greater extent than in any European country, but a rapid process of transferring rural labor to other activities is underway, without however neglecting the objectives of development of production. agricultural, which are pursued through reclamation and irrigation works (from 29. 000 ha in 1938 to 261,000 ha in 1969) and land transformation. The agrarian reform, which began with massive expropriations since 1945, practically ended in 1967 with the almost total socialization of the cultivated lands, which in that year were divided between 32 state-owned companies, 250 local public companies and 1208 cooperatives. In 1969, 99.8% of the agricultural area belonged to the social sector and only 0.2% to the private sector: cooperatives managed 76% of this area, state-owned companies 20.4%, farmers associated with cooperatives 3.4%. year they were divided between 32 state-owned companies, 250 local public companies and 1208 cooperatives. In 1969, 99.8% of the agricultural area belonged to the social sector and only 0.2% to the private sector: cooperatives managed 76% of this area, state-owned companies 20.4%, farmers associated with cooperatives 3.4%. year they were divided between 32 state-owned companies, 250 local public companies and 1208 cooperatives. In 1969, 99.8% of the agricultural area belonged to the social sector and only 0.2% to the private sector: cooperatives managed 76% of this area, state-owned companies 20.4%, farmers associated with cooperatives 3.4%.
The plan policy has achieved a significant increase in the production area (thanks above all to the reclamation) and conspicuous changes in the cultivation destinations. Between 1955 and 1970 the arable land increased by 58%, passing from 13.5 to 20.8% of the territorial surface; forests and woods grew by 9.1%, from 39.3 to 42.9%. On the other hand, meadows and pastures are decreasing (- 25.8%), which fell from 29.6% to 22%, and the uncultivated productive ones.
These variations are even more noticeable in terms of gross salable product of the primary sector, for which herbaceous crops went from 42% in 1937-38 to 58% in 1968-69, woody crops from 6% to 10%, forestry from 0.1% to 4% and livestock farming from 52% to 28%. Herbaceous crops are mostly represented by cereals (62% of the surface in 1968-69), while still scarce are industrial plants (14%), vegetables (11%) and fodder (13%). The main products are always corn and wheat, which however in the last fifteen years have doubled their harvests, thanks to an increase in unit yields. Sugar beets (especially in the reclaimed Maliq plain), tobacco and cotton have had great development. Among the woody crops next to the olive tree,
According to ebizdir, breeding has made significant progress in the sheep and goat sectors which have seen a doubling of the number of heads, in the pig and poultry sectors, while the bovine herd has registered an improvement in quality rather than numerical and the equine herd, which is still important today. for transport, it remained stationary. The use of the woods seems to have taken on a frenetic pace, so much so that in 1969 the production of timber was almost 20 times higher than that of 1957 (for one third of conifers and two thirds of broadleaves), mainly due to the development of wood and pulp industry (8100 t of paper and cardboard and 8200 t of mechanical wood pulp in 1970). On the other hand, fishing activities are still modest,
The industrial sector, in which state-owned companies and cooperatives operate, is the one that has achieved the greatest successes, with the strengthening of pre-existing activities and with the installation of new plants and the start-up of new sectors.
Mining activities benefited from the conclusion of a prospecting campaign, the results of which consist of the preparation of a mineralogical map at a scale of 1: 200,000. The production of fuels has had significant increases: oil (2,137,000 t in 1973, in Qyteti Stalin, Marinèz and Patos) and lignite (675,000 t in 1971), which meet national needs, with some margin for export.. Among the metallic ores there is a strong increase in the extraction of chromite (281,000 t in 1973, in Bulqizë, Kam and Kalimash), of cupriferous pyrites (7,000 t of copper in 1972) and of nickel ores (4000 t in 1971) and iron.
The production of electricity went from 125 million kWh in 1957 to 1250 million in 1972 (for two thirds of water), thanks to the construction of new plants, including water plants on the Drin (Bistrica, Scutari, etc.) and the thermal ones of Kukës, Fier, Tirana, Qyteti Stalin, Valona, Maliq, Cërrik and Korçë. The electrification was thus able to be extended to the whole country, with some margin for export. Among the manufacturing industries, the greatest development is recorded in the chemical sector, practically non-existent until 1950, which now produces sulfuric acid and caustic soda (Valona), nitrogen fertilizers (Laç), superphosphates, ammonium nitrates, copper sulphate, polyvinyl chloride, plastics, colors. L’
The metallurgical industries were also strengthened, with the inauguration after 1960 of the Elbasan steel plant (still under completion), the copper refining plants in Bicaj, Kurbnesh and Rubik (5600 t in 1970) and the chromium extraction plant in Bulqizë. The mechanical and electromechanical industries have had less development, which are located in Tirana (transformers and electric motors), Shkodra (drawn) and Korgë (measuring instruments).
Among the traditional industries, there are increases in the textile sector with new plants in Elbasan, Fier, Berat, Rogozhinë, Gjirokaster and Korçë; in the wood and paper sector; construction materials with particular regard to cement (360,000 t in 1971 with new plants in Tirana, Shkodra, Elbasan, Fushë and Krujës); food (sugar factories, canneries, breweries, etc.) and tobacco (5300 million cigarettes in 1972).
Overall, the gross industrial product in 1969 consisted of 57% of basic products and capital goods and 43% of consumer goods; the most active sectors were represented by the food (28%), textile (23%), metallurgical (15%), mechanical (10%), building materials (6%) and wood and paper (4%) industries.