Afghanistan Central Asian state. According to a2zdirectory, the kingdom of the Afghanistan it was founded in 1747 by Ahmad Shah, who started the Durrani dynasty. He was succeeded by his son Timur Shah (1773-93), who, despite governing undisturbed for twenty years, was unable to guarantee the solidity of the kingdom, characterized by rebellious provinces. This was followed by the brief monarchy of Zaman Shah (1793-1800), overthrown by his brother Mahmud Shah (first reign, 1800-03); he invaded the Panjab and obtained the nominal submission of the Sikhs. In 1803 he was deposed by Shudja al-Mulk (1803-09). With the Battle of Nimla in 1809, Mahmud Shah, supported by Fath Khan, returned to power starting his second reign (1809-29). In 1818 he definitively lost Kabul to Dost Muhammad (➔ Barakzai, Dost Muhammad). He was succeeded by his son Kamran (1829-42), who reigned over Herat until his assassination. In 1838 Dost Muhammad (reigning over Kabul in the years 1826-39) formally adopted the title of amir of Kabul. Quickly losing the more distant provinces that had always compromised the unity of the empire (Multan in 1818, Kashmir in 1819, Peshawar in 1834, followed by Shikarpur and Balkh), he found himself at the head of a compact territory. Shudja al-Mulk intended to restore his power and requested British support. The growing influence of the Russians on Persia and their advance in Central Asia prompted the British to favor Shudja’s claims under the so-called. great game between the British and Russian empires. The Persians, in fact, aimed for the throne of Herat. Thus the first Anglo-Afghan war (1839-42) was outlined, which ended with the settlement of Shudja in Kabul (1839) and the surrender to the English of Dost Muhammad (1840). The reign of Shudja fell shortly after and the British decided to reconstitute the power of Dost Muhammad (1842-63) who in 1863 drove the Persians out of Herat. On his death (1863) the struggles between his successors started a period of unrest that lasted for a decade. During the rule of Sher Ali (1863-66; 1868-79) the second Anglo-Afghan war broke out (1878-80); the king, hostile to the British because they had recognized some territories of the Sistan border as Persia, had refused to receive the British ambassador. The conflict ended with Abd al-Rahman’s accession to the throne (➔ 1868-79) the second Anglo-Afghan war broke out (1878-80); the king, hostile to the British because they had recognized some territories of the Sistan border as Persia, had refused to receive the British ambassador. The conflict ended with Abd al-Rahman’s accession to the throne (➔ 1868-79) the second Anglo-Afghan war broke out (1878-80); the king, hostile to the British because they had recognized some territories of the Sistan border as Persia, had refused to receive the British ambassador. The conflict ended with Abd al-Rahman’s accession to the throne (➔ Barakzai, Abd al-Rahman), which from 1881 reigned over the entire unified country. He was succeeded by his son Habibullah (1901-19). In 1905 he confirmed the Gandomak treaty: the emir would deal with internal affairs, England would control foreign policy. During the First World War the Afghanistan he maintained an attitude of neutrality. After the assassination of the emir (1919), the third son Amanullah Khan (1919-29) took power and unleashed the third Anglo-Afghan war. The armistice was reached with the treaty of Rawalpindi (1919), with which the Afghanistan it came out of isolation and was formally recognized as an independent state. In 1927 Amanullah Khan introduced social reforms to modernize the country, but in 1929 he was forced to abdicate and his cousin Nadir Khan (1929-33) ascended the throne. He abolished the reforms previously launched and consolidated the country. Zahir Shah just nineteen, who established (1964) a constitutional monarchy. The PDPA (People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan) was born, communist and linked to the USSR. In 1973 Daud (➔ Daud Khan, Muhammad) won power through a coup, overthrowing the monarchy and proclaiming a republic.
From the Soviet invasion to today. In December 1979 the Soviet army joined Afghanistan in support of the ruling Marxist regime, fought inside the country by a vast opposition front. The Soviet intervention, which should have been short-lived and decisive, instead collided with the unexpected resistance of the anti-communist guerrillas (the mujahidun, “fighters for the just cause”), favored by the superior knowledge of the places and the massive help received. from the USA, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan. Contingents of volunteers from various Muslim countries were added to the internal guerrilla warfare to fight what appeared to be a legitimate jihad . In 1985, faced with the difficulty and rising costs of the occupation, the USSR began a strategy of disengagement, which it led to in February. 1989 to the total withdrawal of Soviet troops. The failure of the invasion, which hastened the end of the Soviet regime, resulted in severe political destabilization in the region with long-lasting consequences, while also boosting the global jihadist movement. In particular, in Afghanistan the end of this period triggered a civil war that saw the emergence in the 1990s of the role of the Taliban, who in 1996 created a fundamentalist government that came, at its peak, around 2000, to control almost the whole country. After 11 Sept. 2001 an offensive led by US forces deposed the Taliban regime, which protected O. Bin Laden and his terrorist network, by establishing a representative regime of the different Afghan ethnic groups. Provisional President of the Republic, supported by a deployment of international forces, was H. Karzai, who was then formally recognized at the helm of the country in the elections of Oct. 2004. However, the Taliban activity did not end and, even in the following years, it increasingly engaged the military forces present on the ground in defense of the formal government.