State of Inner Anterior Asia. The social and economic Ocean framework of the Afghanistan he is an Indian strongly conditioned by the military confrontation which since 2001 has seen constantly first US troops and its allies, then NATO in the ISAF (International Security Assistance Force) mission, against all the forces of the insurgents, generally defined Ṭālibān. The population as of 2014, according to the UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), is slightly increasing: 31,280,518 residents. Despite the difficult situation, the migration rate is relatively low, equal to 2 people for every 1000 residents. However, NATO’s military disengagement from the Afghanistan at the end of 2014, uncertainties for the future increased. The urbanized population is still very low (23.5%), while the living conditions during the first decade of the 21st century. they remained extremely precarious. Infant mortality and illiteracy rates are still very high.
Economic conditions. – According to ebizdir, the country’s economic development possibilities in the coming years are linked to international aid, promised to facilitate the transition phase from Western military control to that of the Afghan armed forces. The hypothesized figures, however, do not seem capable of guaranteeing a peace building processeffective, also considering the situation of strong internal political and military instability. The strong dependence on international aid is not accompanied by an effective effectiveness of the same, due to the chronic weakness of the state structures recreated by NATO. Political and economic practices are strongly characterized by direct and patrimonial relationships that strongly hinder the emergence of a Western-style public mentality, and are aggravated by the heavy state deficit (-8.7% in 2012). The moderate GDP growth rate (3.2% in 2014) is insignificant compared to the overall figure for national wealth, which remains very low.
The population is mostly employed in agriculture (78%), in which pastoralism has a prevalent role. Among the crops, the most important is that of the opium poppy, which in 2013 recorded the record of cultivated area, 209,000 hectares, a sharp increase compared to the Taliban period and such as to constitute almost 90% of world production. The economy remains firmly in the hands of informal channels, linked as much to illegal opium poppy trafficking as to local trade. Legitimate exports have an extremely small overall volume (just $ 376 million in 2012) and involve traditional artisanal products such as leathers and carpets, but also a small share of natural gas and agricultural commodities. The main exporting countries are in the immediate vicinity: Pakistan, India and Tajikistan.
Economic and social indicators
The civil war that began in Afghanistan in the eighties of the last century continued even after the overthrow of the ṭālibān regime, which took place in the autumn of 2001 by a multinational coalition led by the United States following the attacks of 11 September and the rejection of the government Afghan to extradite Usāma Ibn Lādin, a former jihād fighteranti-Soviet who had subsequently founded the terrorist organization called alQā‛ida, held responsible for the attacks against Washington and New York. In spite of the decisive contribution made by Western air power to the campaign against the followers of Mullā ῾Umar, the major northern, western and central Afghan cities were conquered by the militias of the Northern Alliance, including the capital Kābul. Jalālābād and Kandahār, on the other hand, were freed from a much more evanescent grouping of ‘warlords’ of Pashtun ethnicity, among which Hamid Karzai quickly turned out to be the one best able to act as an internal and external point of reference, much because of his own tribal lineage as well as of the network of international relations that he had been able to weave around himself.